To determine whether your product needs Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) testing, there are a few items to consider.
First, is the device operated within 20cm (7.87”) of the head or body? If no, then SAR does not apply. If yes, then SAR does apply, but testing may be excluded based on the device’s output power.
The maximum conducted output power is the average conducted power at the antenna port plus any production tolerance. When calculating output power, keep in mind the device’s duty-cycle. For SAR, the on and off time-averaged power is to be considered. So if not already accounted for, the duty cycle factor may be applied directly to the output power.
To determine whether the output power is below the threshold for testing, it depends on where the device is being certified for. Here are some common jurisdictions:
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) utilizes a formula to determine SAR test exclusion in KDB 447498 D01v05 Section 4.3. For separation distances of <50mm if the following equation results in <3.0 then test exclusion for 1g SAR applies: (Output power, mW) / (separation distance, mm) x (sqrt(freq), GHz). Use 5mm for separation distances <5mm.
Industry Canada stipulates the exclusion threshold in RSS-102. For 3kHz – 1GHz it is 200mW, for 1GHz – 2.2GHz it is 100mW, for 2.2GHz – 3GHz it is 20mW and for 3GHz – 6GHz it is 10mW. Note that per Industry Canada, output power is always the higher of conducted or equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP).
In the EU, the threshold is given in IEC/EN 62479:2010. A simple formula is used: Pmax = SARmax * m.
For each jurisdiction, if the devices output power is less than the threshold, SAR testing is not required. However, in most cases, a statement showing why it is excluded and how it still meets the requirements must be submitted.
Sign up for one of our upcoming complimentary wireless product testing seminars in Silicon Valley, California:
Last month, a U.S. House of Representatives committee asked the Missile Defense Agency to consider the use of Highly Accelerated Life Testing and Highly Accelerated Stress Screening (HALT/HASS) for identifying possible reliability issues in critical ballistic missile defense (BMD) systems and components.
The committee also believes HALT testing can help ferret out unreliable counterfeit parts that enter into the missile defense supply chain.
From the report:
“Effective utilization of modern methods and equipment for highly accelerated life testing and highly accelerated stress screening (HALT/HASS) during early design stages has been demonstrated to yield significant improvements in reliability and more effective product designs, as well as cost savings. Through modern HALT/HASS testing, key components and subcomponents are subjected to overstresses, revealing latent design flaws (including those based on the use of faulty or counterfeit parts) that can go undetected with legacy testing approaches.”
The House committee asks the Director of the Missile Defense Agency to conduct an assessment of the value, feasibility, and cost of greater utilization of modern HALT /HASS testing equipment and processes to:
- Shorten design and development timelines
- Reduce system and component testing and lifecycle costs
- Enhance reliability of critical missile defense systems and components
- Help address the growing problem of detecting and preventing the introduction of counterfeit parts
The Missile Defense Agency Director is asked to provide his recommendations regarding use of HALT/HASS by January 15, 2014.
Learn why HALT tests are superior to traditional reliability tests in a free HALT webinar next week.
Ask to tour MET’s HALT testing setup in one of our environmental simulation labs.
Product safety certification to UL 913 Intrinsically Safe Apparatus and Associated Apparatus for Use in Class I, II, and III, Division 1, Hazardous (Classified) Locations is a unique situation. There are currently two active editions of the standard: 5th and 7th. (The 6th Edition was withdrawn in April 2008 in the sense that the standards writing body did not think any further certifications should be issued to it.)
While both cover the fundamentals of intrinsic safety, there are significant difference between the two; the 7th edition is harmonized with the international requirements of the IEC 60079 series. This results in a more stringent edition of the standard that employs enhanced requirements. A few major enhancements in UL913 7th edition are as follows:
- Electrostatic discharge (ESD) testing on non-metallic enclosures
- Options for reduced spacings (utilizing annex F)
- More detailed guidance on the infallibility of traces
- Incorporates impact and drop testing from 60079 Series
- More detail-oriented battery testing, including: Guidance on the internal energy limiting componentry of the batteries during testing; Electrolyte leakage testing; and conditioning of battery sampling when rechargeable
- Outdoor use products require at a minimum IP 54 testing
Manufacturers must comply with the 7th Edition of UL 913 by July 31, 2016, but are encouraged to transition earlier, especially if selling in international markets.
Join us for our biggest event of the year: MET’s 2013 Annual Global Product Compliance Seminar & Crab Feast
This week, MET’s Product Safety Lab Director Rick Cooper is attending a meeting of a newly-convened standards committee in Long Beach, CA to discuss the creation of a new medical equipment safety of interoperability standard(s) tentatively known as AAMI/UL 2800. The meeting is well attended by interested parties consisting of certification agencies like MET Labs, and manufacturers, consultants, researchers, and medical professionals.
The topic is a very complex one, but essentially a need has been determined that medical equipment shall be designed, tested and certified to be interoperable while maintaining a specified level of safety.
The problem of interoperability is significant. There are so many different makes and models of so many different types of products to consider – e.g. pulse oximeters, blood pressure monitors, EKGs, and on and on. Each has its own unique needs and features. For example, with EKG filter settings, how do you assure this is communicated to connected equipment? What protocol is to be used? This is just one example of many possible scenarios.
This initial meeting will move into a standards development process jointly managed by AAMI and UL via UL’s Collaborative Standards Development System (CSDS).
No firm deadline exists for when this process might result in a standard or set of standards, but everyone in attendance agrees it needs to be as soon as possible. Any resulting standard will be voluntary and not mandatory.
Official minutes of the meeting are due to be released to participants in early July.
For more information, contact Rick Cooper at email@example.com with “AAMI/UL 2800” in the subject line.
Register for a free Overview of 60601-1 3rd Edition Webinar for safety certification of electro-medical devices.
Early Consideration of EMC & Product Safety Compliance in Product Development Saves Time and Headaches
When developing a new electrical product, early consideration of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and product safety compliance issues will pay major dividends later.
If compliance is not engineered in from the start, expect to endure this pain:
- A major delay as the product is redesigned, jeopardizing time to market and product viability
- Significant extra costs for rework and increased product cost
- Team dissension and rock-bottom morale
What’s the best way to integrate compliance into a new product? First, get buy in from senior management, then:
- Buy and read the relevant safety and EMC standards and train your design engineers in the basics of compliance
- Have your compliance engineers work side by side with the designers, providing deeper expertise when needed, and information about the latest changes to standards and regulations
- Perform early design reviews and early testing on the first prototypes to lower the risk during final compliance testing
Don’t have a compliance engineering team? We can help. In addition to testing and certification, MET Labs offers compliance assistance, with controls in place to prevent a conflict of interest, as required by our accreditation agencies.
We received so much positive feedback on our blog posts for EMC Compliance Links and Product Safety Compliance Links, that we decided to dedicate a post to spotlight the top blogs for electrical product developers.
With a few exceptions, these blogs are from independent sources, like industry associations, publishers or consultants. What are we missing? Leave a comment with a link to it.
Aerospace & Defense Blog Military and aerospace electronics news and information.
ANSI International standards and accreditation activities.
Buzzblog Intelligence and insight for Network and IT Executives.
CertAssist Consulting Product Safety information, especially regarding 60950-1 and 61010-1.
Circuit Advisor Circuit design and troubleshooting.
Compliance Today Electrical testing and certification news and information.
DfR Solutions Forum Reliability design and testing.
Digital Dialogue From the Consumer Electronics Association, sponsor of the Consumer Electronics Show. (Side note: You can meet with MET at CES next week)
EDN Network 59(!) blogs for the electronics community on various topics.
EE Life Blog Electrical engineering topics from EE Times.
EleBlog Frequently updated blog on the electrical industry.
Electronics Weekly Blogs 15 blogs, including Certification & Test and Directive Decoder.
EMC Zone Issues affecting engineers working in the EMC industry.
Emergo Group Global medical device regulatory updates.
EPN Automotive Electronics Blog Automotive electronics issues from a European perspective.
EPN Industrial Automation Blog Industrial automation and controls topics from a European perspective.
EPN Renewable Energy Blog Info on electronic components and technologies related to solar power, wind power, and other renewable energy sources from a European perspective.
EPN RF & Wireless Blog Updates on RF/microwave and wireless technology, systems, standards and events from a European perspective.
IEEE Spectrum 5 blogs on nanotech, robots, risk analysis, general tech, and energy.
IEEE Standards Insight Promotes technology standards and their development.
Instruments for Industry Information to help RF EMI and EMC test engineers, from an amplifier manufacturer.
Medical Electronics Design A resource for medical electronics OEMs.
Microwave Journal A handful of blogs concentrating on microwave and RF technology.
NEMA Currents Information on electrical grid, safety, energy efficiency, smart grid, and regulation.
Nick’s Fire, Electrical Safety & Security Blog Common sense security, fire & electrical safety.
OnSafety Official blog of the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission.
Pradeep’s Point A resource for semiconductors, solar PV, telecom, electronics, infocom, components, nanotech, and IT.
Product Safety Blog Product safety legal issues from Miles & Stockbridge.
Regulatory News Blog Telecom regulatory news.
Reliability Blog Electronics reliability engineering.
RFID Journal Blog RFID industry news and information.
Smart Grid Sherpa Information on smart grid technologies, from DNV KEMA.
Test and Certification Blog Product test and certification from an EU perspective.
Test & Measurement World 14 blogs, including The EMC Blog and Eye on Standards.
WeMakeItSafer Product safety regulations and recall information.
What are your favorite electrical product development blogs? Please leave a comment with a link to it.
Need testing? Contact Us.
New Requirement for Dimmable CFLs and LEDs
The meeting agenda began with a roundtable, which was focused on dimmers. EPA has encouraged consumers to transition to CFLs and LED bulbs to save energy, but their performance with dimmers has sometimes been less than optimal. Some dimmers are exhibiting flickering, noise and limited dimming. As a result, consumers are getting frustrated and switching back to incandescent bulbs.
The EPA is establishing a working group to introduce some basic requirements for all ENERGY STAR-labeled dimmable lamps/bulbs. It will include requirements for:
- Dimmer level
- Noise level
The test method is based on recommendations from NEMA and LRC (Lighting Research Center). The EPA is also considering a proposal to have building codes include dimmers for both CFLs and LED bulbs.
Lighting Certification Update
There are also updates on some new standards being developed for lighting certification, which are as follows:
- LM-84: To measure lumen and color maintenance of LED lamps, light engines and luminaires
- LM-85: To measure electric and photometric measurements for high power LEDs
- TM-26: To project rated life for LED packages
- TM-28: To project long term lumen maintenance of LED lights based on LM-84 data
Consumer Electronics Expansion
For consumer electronics, EPA intends to expand the product category in 2013 to include:
- Small Network Equipment
- Climate Control
- IP Phones
- Game Consoles
In 2013, there will be standard revisions for:
- Set-Top Boxes
- Battery Charging Systems
Touch and voice activation functionality will also be evaluated to implement as a function of energy for products with such features.
See other ENERGY STAR testing updates from MET Labs.
Utilize MET for Energy Efficiency testing and/or certification.
This post is the second of two posts on hazardous location product safety testing and certification. The first post explored testing for UL/CSA, ATEX & IECEx.
This post looks at certification requirements for particular markets/countries.
In the United States, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) governs the Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratories (NRTL) program, and accredits laboratories like MET Labs to product safety certify products. Hazardous location products must meet normal location and hazardous location requirements.
In Canada, Standards Council Canada (SCC) accredits labs to certify hazardous location equipment.
European Union (EU) Member Countries
The CE Marking, which includes the ATEX Directive and any other applicable Directives, is mandatory for equipment offered for sale or use within the EU. Equipment must bear all applicable markings (EN 60079 Series) and must be accompanied by a Manufacturer’s Declaration of Conformity.
Other Directives may also apply, such as PED for pressure equipment, Machinery Directive and EMC.
Australia, New Zealand, and Singapore
These countries require an IECEx Certificate of Conformity issued by an accredited IECEx Certification Body (ExCB), and equipment must bear the applicable markings outlined by the IEC 60079 series of standards.
Note also that for mining equipment, some jurisdictions within Australia require the IECEx Certificate of Conformity to be issued by an Australian ExCB.
For above ground (non-mining) hazardous location equipment, China has an IECEx Certification Body and will accept an Ex Test Report (ExTR) and/or an ATEX Report as a basis for issuing Chinese national certification. Generally, hazardous location equipment which is approved under the ATEX or the IECEx Scheme can be reviewed and issued a certificate by NEPSI (National Supervision and Inspection Center for Explosion Protection and Safety of Instrumentation) or CQST (China National Quality Supervision and Test Center for Explosion Protected Products).
Some products may also need metrology approval, MA mining certification, fire safety approval or CCC marking for general electrical safety.
Russia has an IECEx Certification Body and will accept an Ex Test Report (ExTR) and/or an ATEX Report as a basis for issuing national certification.
A GOST-R certificate is required for most electrical products shipped through Russian customs. For products intended for hazardous locations, the GOST-Ex certificate is required. The IECEx or ATEX certificate and ExTR or ATEX Report can be used to obtain the GOST-Ex. In addition, a permit for use from the Federal Ecological, Technological and Atomic Supervision Service (Rostekhnadzor) is required for the intended installation.
Korea accepts an Ex Test Report (ExTR) and/or an ATEX Report as a basis for issuing national certification. There are three main certification bodies: KGS, KOSHA and KTL. Applications must be made in Korean.
India is a member of the IECEx Scheme, but there are no Indian certification agencies currently accredited as ExCBs. There are a number of certification agencies within India, and an ATEX or IECEx Certificate and Report will help in obtaining National Certification for India.
Find out more about testing products for different world markets.
Get a quote for hazardous location product safety certification for one or multiple markets.
Safety testing and certifying products for hazardous locations is complicated, especially when a manufacturer is exporting to multiple markets. Following is a basic primer. For more detailed information or questions, contact MET Labs.
In countries with formal certification and a 3-zone system, the IEC60079 series of standards is commonly used, adopted as National Standards as they are written or with some National Deviations that ensure compatibility with local installation codes.
Most all other countries that produce their own National Standards base them on the IEC 60079 series. Some countries, like the U.S. and Canada, have dual standards systems: National Standards, plus adoption of the IEC60079 series as an alternate system.
CE Marking/ATEX Directive
All EU countries require CE Markings, which involves the ATEX Directive for products used in hazardous locations. The use of harmonized EN standards gives the manufacturer the “presumption of conformity” to the “Essential Health and Safety Requirements (EHSRs)” and a basis on which to issue a declaration of compliance for the ATEX Directive.
The ATEX Directive requires:
- ATEX EC Type Exam Certificate, which documents the evaluation and testing of the subject equipment, performed to the applicable EN 60079 Standards, which are an adoption of the IEC 60079 Series with National Deviations for ATEX markings. The certificate is issued by a Notified Body (NB).
- ATEX Quality Assessment Notification (QAN), which documents the suitability of the manufacturer’s QA system, performed to the EN13980 Standard. The notification is issued by a NB.
- Declaration of Conformity (DoC) stating compliance with all applicable Directives. The DoC is issued by the manufacturer for Zone 2 certifications. Zone 1 and Zone 0 DoC certifications are issued by the NB.
For certain types of equipment (non-electrical for Zone 1 or both electrical and non-electrical for Zone 2), it is possible to self-declare compliance.
The IECEx Scheme is the CB Scheme for electrical equipment used in explosive atmospheres (hazardous locations). It consists of three elements, all issued by an IECEx Scheme Certification Body (ExCB):
- IECEx Test Report (ExTR), which documents the evaluation and testing of the subject equipment, performed to the applicable IEC 60079 Series Standards
- IECEx Quality Assessment Report (ExQAR), which documents the suitability of the manufacturer’s QA system, performed to OD 005 (EN13980)
- IECEx Certificate of Conformity (IECEx CoC), which can be issued to a manufacturer holding an ExTR and an applicable ExQAR.
In alliance with UK-based TRaC Global, MET offers testing, certification and product inspection services under the ATEX Directive and the IECEx Certified Equipment Scheme, via an innovative Harmonised International Ex Testing Program. Read more about it.
On September 30, 2012, the previous version of ETSI EN 300 132-2 will be withdrawn, and ETSI EN 300 132-2 v2.4.6 (2011-12) will take effect. ETSI 300 132-2 covers the testing requirements for the DC power ports of telecommunications equipment. It is not a harmonized standard, but it is often required by EU carriers like Deutsche Telekom and British Telecom.
Here are the most significant additional requirements in this new revision:
4.2 Normal service voltage range at interface “A”
Test method now references EN 61000-4-29. The voltage variations now have dwell time and rise/fall time requirements.
4.3.2 Abnormal service voltage range at interface “A”
Same as 4.2 above but with abnormal service range defined in table 2.
4.3.3 voltage transients
Same 1.2/50 or 8/20 combo waveform @500V, but only one configuration now.
4.4 voltage changes due to regulation of the power supply
Defines voltage variation ranges; test method remains the same as before.
4.6 Maximum current drain
The EUT’s current drain cannot exceed 1.5 x Imax only in the range of -54V to -40.5V. For the range of -40.5V to 0V, it is allowed to exceed this amount. This is different from before when the current drain could never exceed 1.5 x Imax throughout the entire range.
4.7 Inrush current on connection of interface “A”
Same as before but with the following additional performance criteria:
- Below 0,1 ms, the inrush current is not defined
- Below 0,9 ms the It/Im ratio shall be lower than 48
- Above 1 ms the curve corresponds to the maximum tripping limit of majority of existing protective devices
4.8 Conducted immunity requirements of the telecommunications equipment at interface “A”: narrowband noise
Conducted immunity shall apply only to telecommunication equipment having analogue voice interface.
Additional Note 3: The test should be limited for equipment with an input not higher than 10A.
4.9 Conducted Emissions requirements of the telecommunications and datacom equipment at interface “A”
Conducted emissions requirements shall not be applicable at equipment installed in outdoor location such as shelters and street cabinets. Due to the nature of the emitted noise this could be influenced only other equipment directly connected at the interface “A” present in the outdoor location.
For telecommunications equipment fitted with analogue interfaces an evaluation of wideband noise amplitude in this frequency band can be calculated using method detailed in annex E.
For more information, read an IN Compliance article on ETSI EN 300 132 2 Compliance Testing by MET Engineer Zijun Tong.